Revolutions of the planets

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The ancient Indian astronomers attempted to determine how many times the planets had rotated around the Earth since the beginning of their epoch, the beginning of the current Kaliyuga (Feb 17-18, 3102 BC). The resulting rotation estimates were used in various astronomical calculations.

Āryabhaṭa gives numbers in his Template:Ref-ABh[1] that were later used by other astronomers. Putumana Somayāji, for example, in his Template:Ref-KP[2], and Lalla in Template:Ref-SiDhVr.[3]

The Template:Ref-SuSi gives slightly different numbers.[4]

Revolutions around the Earth in one mahāyuga
Celestial entity Template:Ref-AB Template:Ref-SuSi
Sun 43,20,000 43,20,000
Moon 5,77,53,336 5,77,53,336
Mars 22,96,824 22,96,832
Mercury (sighra) 1,79,37,020 17,93,760
Jupiter 3,64,224 3,64,220
Venus (sighra) 70,22,388 70,22,376
Saturn 1,46,564 1,46,568
lunar nodes 2,32,226 2,32,234
civil days 1,57,79,17,500 -
asterisms - 1,58,22,37,828

Subbarayappa and Sarma (citing Roger Billard) discuss about how the Bija correction was applied to Āryabhaṭa's calculations by Vaṭeśvara.[5]


Āryabhaṭa II and Bhāskara II each give revolutions in a kalpa[6] (1,000 times longer than a mahayuga, i.e. ~ 4 billion years)

Revolutions around the Earth in one kalpa
entity Āryabhaṭa II Bhāskara II
Sun 4,320,000,000 4,32,00,00,000
Moon 57,753,334,000 57,75,33,00,000
Mars 2,296,831,000 2,29,68,28,522
Mercury (sighra) 17,937,054,671 17,93,69,98,984
Jupiter 364,219,682 36,42,26,455
Venus (sighra) 7,022,371,432 7,02,23,89,492
Saturn 146,569,000 14,65,67,298


See Also

References

  1. Template:Refia13.4.1
  2. Template:Refia7.8.1
  3. Template:Refia13.4.2
  4. Template:Refia13.4.3
  5. Template:Ref-indian-astronomy p 122
  6. Template:Refia13.4.4