Siddhānta

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The Siddhāntas were a series of early works used by the early Vedic astronomers.

Bhāskara II described them as being an 'astronomical treatise' dealing with the measure of time, planet theory, mathematics, algebra, instrumentation, &c. [1]

They slowly replaced much of the Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa, but were later on amended, corrected, and replaced in usefulness by the works of the moder modern astronomers.

There were 18:[2]

Vyāsa
Atri
Parāśara
Kāśyapa
Nārada
Gārgya
Marici
Manu
Aṅgira
Gyavana
Yavana or The Greek
Bhṛgu
Śaunaka
Sūrya or Saura
Paitāmaha
Vāsiṣṭha
Lomaśa or Romaka
Pauliśa

The Romaka and Pauliśa are described by Kuppanna Sastry as 'clearly western'. [3]


Later analysis and improvement

The astronomer Varāhamihira described the last five Siddhānta on the above list in his work Pañcasiddhāntikā, circa 505 AD. In fact, he recommends them as required knowledge for an astronomer. [4]

The Paitāmaha contains information similar to the Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa, and thus was seen as less accurate than the more modern works. [5]Vāsiṣṭha was more up to date. It described the Zodiac, Nakṣatras, the five planets, the sidereal and solar year, &c. The Pauliśa was very good as well, [5] but the Sūrya was described as the best. [2]

Muñjāla, in his Laghumānasa complained that the inconsistency between the different Siddhānta's produced confusion regarding the correct timing of Vedic rituals. Thus, "worldly life gets disrupted. Alas! We have been preciptated into a big calamity." [6]

See Also

References

  1. Template:Refia1.4.2
  2. 2.0 2.1 Template:Ref-indian-astronomy, p. XXIII
  3. Template:Iaref, p. xxxii
  4. Template:Refia2.4.1
  5. 5.0 5.1 Template:Iaref, p. xxiv
  6. Template:Refia, p. 7